What is a grafting? How should a grafting be done?What should be kept in mind for that? These questions keep coming to our minds. It usually means that the best plants with better productivity have a connection with other plants.
When we hear the word grafting, the only picture that comes to our mind is that it is a process for excellent fruiting in horticultural crops This method is very popular and scientifically taken in modern farming.
In this post I will show you the use and benefits of grafting method in vegetable crops. Vegetable crops are rich in nutrition. So it is known as protective food. It is beneficial to change the subsistence farming. Climate instability at any stage of crop growth therefore affects normal growth, flowering fruit development and subsequent yield. Grafting in vegetable crops is emerging as a promising and relatively slow alternative to traditional breeding methods.
If we want to increase our tolerance to biological and inorganic stress, we need to adopt and understand the need for grafting in vegetable crops. The plan to transplant these crops is a unique horticultural technique to solve the problems that have been associated in Asia for many years. Grafting on a specific rootstock usually protects the crop from soil borne bugs and worms. It also protects crops against other diseases and organisms. Numerous studies have shown that it can increase production per unit area.
Grafting is an art and technique in vegetable crops. In which two living parts of different plants like Rootstock and Sion Avery are connected so that they grow together as a joint plant.
In addition, grafting is becoming popular as a climate resilient technology due to its ability to withstand salinity, drought, floods, thermal stress, toxic and saturated metals, diseases and pests to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on productivity and quality of vegetable crops.
- Plants grow well because of their tolerance to soil borne diseases and worms.
- There will be a new option against sterilization in the greenhouse.
- Yields increase.
- Improving quality features
- Tolerance against low temperatures
- Relief in labor costs as changes in the period of harvest become possible.
- Reducing his own autotoxin.
- Reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals
Objectives of crop wise grafting system:
The objectives of grafting according to different crops for successful growth of crop under organic and inorganic stress are shown in the table below.
|Vegetables||The purpose of the grafting|
|Karela||Endurance against Fusarium wilt|
|Eggplant||Fusarium wilt, Phytophthora, Melones, cold tolerance, favorable sex, ratio, fruits without shade.|
|Succulents||Fusarium wilt, Bacterial, Verticillium, Endurance, Low Temperature, Worm tolerance, Increase physical strength and yield of crop. .|
|Tomatoes||Endurance against cork roots, endurance against Fusarium wilt, dark red color of fruit and more lycopene, tolerance against worm.|
|Watermelon||Endurance against Fusarium wilt, relief from physical deformity, endurance against cold, endurance against drought.|
Tools for grafting: Grafting making clip, tube, pin
Basic prerequisites for making grafting:
- Root stock
- Sion Root Stock and Sion
- Compatibility between root stock and sion
- Grafting tools
- The screen house is used to prepare the above and original stem plants before it.UV resistant polyethylene plastic cover with two door arrangement is required when making screen house.
- The main purpose of the healing chamber is to provide an excellent environment for the graft connection process. The healing chamber is a covered structure. In which it is necessary to have a system of control of elements like humidity and low light. The connection of the graft can be done well using ordinary plastic tunnel. The temperature in the healing chamber is 25-30 degrees Celsius, 85-90.5 Relative humidity and low light intensity are likely to be more successful in graft attachment.
- The acclimatization chamber is used to transplant grafted plants. And the plants are ready for planting in 7 to 10 days.
Important points to consider when creating a grafting:
Plant the first true leaf stage cyan. The size of the true leaf should be 2-3 mm. The size of the true leaf lift laminate should be about 2 cm. A surgeon’s knife with a handle is best for this grafting method. Use a well-moistened substrate such as a cockpit-filled plug train.
Place the cyan and rootstock in sunlight for 2-3 days before grafting. Make sure that the trunk of the cyan and rootstock are the same size. The cut surface should not be allowed to dry out.It should be placed in a shady place or in a polycarbonate house. Stop watering the plants to avoid unwanted growth.
Different methods of grafting
(1) Cleft grafting: This method is used for grafting of tomato crop.In order to use it root seed stalks are planted 5-7 days early.2-3 Leaving the leaf on the trunk, the cyan and rootstock are cut from the ground side and fitted in the cracked cut part of the rootstock.The pen is reinforced with a plastic clip.
(2) Tube grafting: Grafting is done in the early stages of small plants in the tray.And that requires a small addictive tube.The rootstock is cut first.The sign is cut in the same way.An elastic tube is mounted in the area at the end of the cut of the rootstock.The cut area of the cyan is placed in this tube.So that the sion and root are connected to the outer surface of the stock.
(3) Tongue grafting approach: This method is commonly used in vine vegetable crops like cucumber, sweet potato, watermelon.In this method, the upper and lower stems are sown in such a way that the diameter of the hypocotyl of the cyan and the rootstock remain the same.The hypocotyl of the rootstock is cut in such a way that it fits into each other’s tongue and is secured with a plastic clip.The hypocotyl of the cyan is kept for healing for 3-4 days and then it is crushed between the fingers.This crushed hypocotyl is cut with a razor blade after 3-4 days.
(4) Slant cut grafting: This method has been developed to create robotic grafting.In this method when the seedbed of the rootstock is cut into the slant it is necessary to remove the first leaf and side buds.This method can be done manually in addition to the robotic fly and can be commonly used in all types of vegetables.
(5) Hole insert grafting: This method is most popular with vines.This method is used when there is a polo hypocotyl in the rootstock and cyan. A person can produce 1500 or more cuttings per day. To achieve a high success rate, relative humidity should be maintained at 95%. Temperature should be 21-36 degrees Celsius after healing.
(6)Mechanical grafting: Some of the basic factors that shape the success of grafting by machine or robot such as seedling shape, cut location, gripping, cutting method, fixing material and tools etc. Mechanical this method increases graft success rate. Semi-automatic machine With operators can produce 350 to 600 graphs per hour, while a fully automated grafting robot grafts 750 per hour with a 9.-93% success rate.
(7) Micro-grafting: Micro-grafting is the process of making an in-vitro graft using very small or microscopic implants from meristematic tissues. This method is often used to remove the virus from infected plants because the ears of the virus do not exist in the anterior part of the meristem. This method is expensive.
Tired of using the grafting method, let’s revolutionize agriculture.